I have some questions:
1) When should one use bahawa and yang? Is there any hard and fast rule governing their usage?
Bahawa is normally followed by a phrase while yang is followed by a lesser phrase
A. Dia tahu bahawa dia bukan lagi teman yang disayangi oleh Mimi.
B. Dia tahu dia akan memilih soalan yang sukar.
2) What about pula v juga v pun? Are there any differences?
pula is contrastive, juga is equalizer and pun is a consequent of
1. Abang suka makan nasi goreng bapa pula suka mi goreng.
2. Ali suka ke pasar dan isterinya juga suka pergi bersama dengan Ali.
3. Apabila Salmah ternampak seekor tikus di dalam begnya dia pun pengsan.
3) “Ramai netizen pula kesal dengan sikap yang tidak sabar-sabar untuk mendapatkan iPhone4.”
I do not quite get what you mean in this sentence. Does it mean that many netizens are having a disappointed attitude which is due to them not being paitent to receive their iPhone4s??
It meant that “The netizens regret that there is an attitude of hastiness towards getting the IPhone 4.”
Is there a difference between sabar and sabar-sabar?
It should be tidak sabar (impatience] vs tidak sabar-sabar (hasty)
4) Is there any difference between selain and selain daripada?
Selain daripada [apart of] is the grammatical version of selain [besides]
5) I wrote Ali seorang budak yang sangat nakal kerana dia sentiasa mendapat keseronokan dari menganggu kucing itu.
You told me to remove the word “mendapat” from the ayat. Why is there a need to do so since I am trying to say that he receives fun from disturbing the cat?
In short, it is the Malay syntax hence the English mindset of phrasing is not needed.
In long, mendapat implies physical acquisition, whereas the devilish relish of Ali is not a concrete manifestation.
6) Is there a difference between kini and sekarang?
Sekarang is now (immediate) Kini is now and nowadays
although human use may jumble and there is no reason to deny sekarang from taking on an extended now-meaning.